Protein general information
UniProt names and subcellular location Protein identifiers Protein names Subcellular locations Tubulin alpha-1B chain
Tubulin alpha-ubiquitous chain
Source Identifiers IPI ID IPI00700865, IPI00969650 Refseq protein ID NP_001108328.1 Ensembl protein ENSBTAP00000016242 Ensembl gene ENSBTAG00000012244 UniProt AC P81947 UniProt ID TBA1B_BOVIN UniProt secondary AC A6H700 Protein length Isoform 1 (main): 451 aa Known functions (from UniProt) Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. It binds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site on the beta chain and one at a non-exchangeable site on the alpha chain. Dimer of alpha and beta chains. A typical microtubule is a hollow water-filled tube with an outer diameter of 25 nm and an inner diameter of 15 nM. Alpha-beta heterodimers associate head-to-tail to form protofilaments running lengthwise along the microtubule wall with the beta-tubulin subunit facing the microtubule plus end conferring a structural polarity. Microtubules usually have 13 protofilaments but different protofilament numbers can be found in some organisms and specialized cells. Undergoes a tyrosination/detyrosination cycle, the cyclic removal and re-addition of a C-terminal tyrosine residue by the enzymes tubulin tyrosine carboxypeptidase (TTCP) and tubulin tyrosine ligase (TTL), respectively. Some glutamate residues at the C-terminus are either polyglutamylated or polyglycylated. These 2 modifications occur exclusively on glutamate residues and result in either polyglutamate or polyglycine chains on the gamma-carboxyl group. Glycylation is mainly limited to tubulin incorporated into axonemes (cilia and flagella) whereas glutamylation is prevalent in neuronal cells, centrioles, axonemes, and the mitotic spindle. Both modifications can coexist on the same protein on adjacent residues, and lowering polyglycylation levels increases polyglutamylation, and reciprocally. The precise function of such modifications is still unclear but they are regulate the assembly and dynamics of axonemal microtubules (By similarity). Acetylation of alpha chains at Lys-40 stabilizes microtubules and affects affinity and processivity of microtubule motors. This modification has a role in multiple cellular functions, ranging from cell motility, cell cycle progression or cell differentiation to intracellular trafficking and signaling (By similarity). Belongs to the tubulin family.
Cysteine summary and predictions
Pos in alignment 4 20 25 129 200 213 295 305 315 316 347 376 Topology U U U U U U U U U U U U Disulfide no no no no no no no no no no no no SS prediction E H H C E H H C E E C E SS UniProt NA H H NA NA H H NA NA NA NA NA Isoform 1
Topology U Undefined E Extracellular/Lumenal T Transmembrane C Cytosolic/Nuclear Prediction scores From top to bottom: Cysteine position, CSS-Palm 4.0 score, PalmPred score
Color code for cysteine position: Predicted (high confidence prediction with CSS-Palm or/and PalmPred) / Predicted but not validated (in terms of disulfide bond and cellular location) / Not predicted
Color code for CSS-Palm 4.0: High confidence, Medium confidence, Low confidence, Not predicted.
Color code for PalmPred: High confidence (score > 0.4), Medium confidence (0.1 > score > 0.4), Low confidence (score < 0.1), Not predicted.
Feature type Isoform 1 acetylation 40
UniProt AC UniProt ID Orthology source Organism Gene names Description Isoforms # palmitome articles # targeted studies # of distinct techniques # of known sites Predicted P09733 TBA1_YEAST OMA Yeast TUB1, YML085C Tubulin alpha-1 chain 1 0/1 1 0 1 Yes P09734 TBA3_YEAST OMA Yeast TUB3, YML124C, YM7056.02C Tubulin alpha-3 chain 1 0/1 0 0 0 Yes Q71U36 TBA1A_HUMAN OMA Human TUBA1A, TUBA3 Tubulin alpha-1A chain (Alpha-tubulin 3) (Tubulin B-alpha-1) (Tubulin alpha-3 chain) 2 3/15 0 4 0 Yes P68363 TBA1B_HUMAN OMA, Ensembl Human TUBA1B Tubulin alpha-1B chain (Alpha-tubulin ubiquitous) (Tubulin K-alpha-1) (Tubulin alpha-ubiquitous chain) 2 3/15 0 3 0 Yes P68369 TBA1A_MOUSE OMA Mouse Tuba1a, Tuba1 Tubulin alpha-1A chain (Alpha-tubulin 1) (Alpha-tubulin isotype M-alpha-1) (Tubulin alpha-1 chain) 1 2/8 0 2 0 Yes P05213 TBA1B_MOUSE OMA, Ensembl Mouse Tuba1b, Tuba2 Tubulin alpha-1B chain (Alpha-tubulin 2) (Alpha-tubulin isotype M-alpha-2) (Tubulin alpha-2 chain) 1 1/8 0 1 0 Yes F2Z5T5 F2Z5T5_PIG MetaPhors Pig TUBA1A Tubulin alpha-1A chain 1 0/0 0 0 0 No Q2XVP4 TBA1B_PIG MetaPhors Pig TUBA1B Tubulin alpha-1B chain (Alpha-tubulin ubiquitous) (Tubulin K-alpha-1) (Tubulin alpha-ubiquitous chain) 1 0/0 0 0 0 Yes
Biological process Cellular component Molecular function GO:6345092 Metabolic process
GO:6345038 Microtubule cytoskeleton organization
GO:6345114 Cellular response to interleukin-4
GO:6345098 Protein polymerization
GO:6345097 Myelin sheath
GO:6345081 Cytoplasmic microtubule
GO:6345106 Extracellular vesicular exosome
GO:6345063 Structural constituent of cytoskeleton
GO:6345049 Double-stranded rna binding
GO:6345065 Gtp binding
GO:6345093 Ubiquitin protein ligase binding
GO:6345056 Gtpase activity